Scientific Name: Bacopa monnieri
- Steroidal & Tripterpene saponins (bacosides & bacosine, jujubogenin)
- Alkaloids (brahmine & herpestatine)
- Betulinic acid
- Phytosterols (stigmastarol & beta-sitosterol)
- Cognition & memory enhancer
- Nervine Tonic & Sedative
Mechanism of Action & Pharmacology:
- Various mechanisms of action for cognitive effects have been proposed, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, β-amyloid reduction, antioxidant neuroprotection, neurotransmitter modulation (Ach), 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine, choline acetyltransferase activation and increased cerebral blood flow.
- Steroidal & Triterpenoid saponins (bacosides) increase protein kinase activity, protein synthesis in the long-term memory brain regions, and are responsible for cognitive effects and enhanced nerve impulse transmission (balances GABA and glutamate levels in the brain). Has protective effects against β-amyloid toxicity and beneficial effects on cognitive performance.
- Bacosine has analgesic effects.
- The alkaloid brahmine is toxic in very large doses.
- Standardized extract
Safety & Toxicity Concerns:
- May cause gastric irritation of the gastric mucosa membranes and reflux due to saponin content.
- Potential interaction when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.