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Scientific Name: Bacopa monnieri

Constituents:

  • Steroidal & Tripterpene saponins (bacosides & bacosine, jujubogenin)
  • Alkaloids (brahmine & herpestatine)
  • Betulinic acid
  • Phytosterols (stigmastarol & beta-sitosterol)

Medicinal actions:

  • Adaptogen
  • Alterative
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antioxidant
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Bitter
  • Cardiotonic
  • Cognition & memory enhancer
  • Nervine Tonic & Sedative

Mechanism of Action & Pharmacology:

  • Various mechanisms of action for cognitive effects have been proposed, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, β-amyloid reduction, antioxidant neuroprotection, neurotransmitter modulation (Ach), 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine, choline acetyltransferase activation and increased cerebral blood flow.
  • Steroidal & Triterpenoid saponins (bacosides) increase protein kinase activity, protein synthesis in the long-term memory brain regions, and are responsible for cognitive effects and enhanced nerve impulse transmission (balances GABA and glutamate levels in the brain). Has protective effects against β-amyloid toxicity and beneficial effects on cognitive performance.
  • Bacosine has analgesic effects.
  • The alkaloid brahmine is toxic in very large doses.

Pharmacy:

  • Tincture
  • Standardized extract

Safety & Toxicity Concerns:

  • May cause gastric irritation of the gastric mucosa membranes and reflux due to saponin content.

Interactions:

  • Potential interaction when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

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