Scientific Name: Crataegus oxycantha
- Oligomeric proanthocyanadins (OPCs) & Anthocyanidins
- Flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, vitexin & rutin)
- Amines (phenylethylamine, tyramine, choline)
- Phenolic, carboxylic & triterpene acids (ascorbic, crategolic acid & ursolic acid)
- Triterpene saponins
- Cardiac Tonic & trophorestorative (Anti-arrhythmic)
- Connective Tissue Tonic
- Vascular Tonic
Mechanism of Action & Pharmacology:
- Oligomeric procyanidins are antioxidant, improve coronary circulation and have negative chronotropic & positive inotropic action on the heart.
- The resulting coronary vasodilation promotes decreased vascular resistance, hypotension, increased nutrition & energy stores to myocardial cells.
- Inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) causes increased levels of cAMP in myocardial cells, thus prolonging the effective refractory period of the heart muscle, and also inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme.
- Flavonoids relax and dilate arteries and are highly antioxidant. Rutin specifically, improves integrity of blood vessels and capillaries.
- Anthocyanidins and Vitamin C work synergistically to help stabilize connective tissues & collagen in cartilage and bone by strengthening cross-links between collagen chains.
- Dried/fresh leaf, flower or berry
- Note: There is no restriction on the long-term use
Safety & Toxicity Concerns:
- Use caution in severe hypotension.
- In rare cases may cause nausea, dizziness, and gastrointestinal complaints.
- May help reduce toxicity & increase effectiveness of cardiac glycosides, hypotensive medications and CNS depressants.
- May inhibit effects of vasoconstrictors (eg. Alpha-blockers) and decrease BP with nitrates & PDE-5 inhibitors (eg. Sildenafil)